The less complete or short form citation must clearly identify the referenced work. The title of the entire work, however, should always be used instead of the author. Supreme court rules or a page limit under many appellate court rules and gaining from the other is the filing deadline. The supreme court has stated unequivocally that apprehension by the use of. How to cite a complaint according to bluebook pen and. Hopefully, we are communicating with others who speak our citation language.
Just writing, just briefs, just memos, and just research. Since the book is blue, its only fair that super supra gets a pink logo. If the entire title would be cumbersome or confusing to use with supra, a hereinafter citation may be appropriate, as is discussed elsewhere in this guide. However, errors in the application of these and other bluebook rules are. Use supra if not referring to the immediately preceding authority. Note, however, that in general most forms of primary legal authority cases, statutes, etc. Supra should be used to refer to the entire work as a whole. This presentation is about writing for practice not for academia. Importantly, however, it documents the many respects in which contemporary legal writing, very often following guidelines set out in court rules or style guides, diverges from the citation formats specified by those academic texts. Blue pages this guide covers the bluebooks white pages, which provide citation rules for academic papers. Bluebook is a citation style guide used for legal citations.
Explanatory parentheticals can pack a persuasive punch. Citing legal sources quick reference this quick reference 2to citing legal sources provides guidance on creating citations for the most commonly used legal sources. Aug 23, 2019 the two most common forms of references in legal writing are in text references and footnotes. The following information regarding the bluebook citation format is an adapted version of the. The bluebook also has citation rules for legal memoranda and other practiceoriented materials the blue pages, which students in lrwa2.
Bluebook rule 15 gives the citation format for books, reports, and other nonperiodic materials. However, none of these services or websites work perfectly, so you still have to doublecheck all citations. However, none of these services or websites work perfectly, so you still have to doublecheck. Thus far, this guide has described how to cite cases in long form, i. Nov 05, 2014 a lot of specific legal phrases are latin phrases or at least started out latin. Supra and hereinafter have special rules for their use. Generally speaking, the citation should include the authors full name, the title of the book, the page cited, editors name if applicable, edition if applicable, and year of publication an example of a book citation would be. Professor enquist is coauthor of the legal writing handbook, 3d edition, and four books. Supra is used when referring to the same source in a footnote that is not immediately above.
As men of law rely upon a great number of various sources, legal citation also covers the usage of signals that present citations and explain. This relation can be supportive, comparative, or contradictory. Infra refers to material that appears later in the document, but never for books see r15. In a diverse and rapidly changing legal profession, the bluebook continues to provide a systematic method by which members of the profession communicate important information to one another about the sources and legal authorities upon. Effective january 1, 2008, however, california rule of court, rule 1. Cases how to cite university of akron school of law. Bruce ackerman, robert borks grand inquisition, 99 y ale l. Weresh, supra note 4 praising the alwd citation manual, newly published by the association of legal writing directors.
A lawyers guide to writing how to handle cases in legal. If you are not using a citation manager to insert your citations into your paper in bluebook format, you can get some help from westlaw, lexis advance, and other websites. Signals are important because they indicate how a cited authority relates to the text. Use authors last name, followed by a comma and the word supra. Indeed, student editors of law journals spend an extraordinary amount of time yanking the articles and essays of legal academics into compliance with the dictates of the blue book. In notes 3 and 4 of the preceding example, the term supra is preceded by a short form for the source either a short form of the case name note 3 or a short form of the article using the authors last name note 4. The main rule that describes the short form for cases is rule 10. Ibid may be used after another ibid or after a supra. This book is a reference guide that, believe it or not, will be just about the only book you take from law school into your practice as a lawyer. History of bluebook the development of the bluebook from its inception in 1926 as a twentysixpage pamphlet. Here is the first sample passage from the intext references section above, illustrating how to provide the same references using footnotes. Bluebook citation style is designed for both students and researchers to be used in academic writing the whitepages and practitioners clerks, lawyers, and other legal professionals to be used in nonacademic legal documents the bluepages citation format of the whitepages and the bluepages differs in typeface and elements of citation.
Supra short form use the authors last name or article title if no author along with supra, indicating the original footnote the work was fully cited in and the. In a diverse and rapidly changing legal profession, the bluebook continues to provide a systematic method by which members of. The first thing to consider in answering this question is, what is meant by a book about legal writing. I personally have developed a great love, respect, and appreciation for the use of supra in legal writing. Copeland, the use of arbitration to settle territorial disputes, 67 fordham l. Supra refers to material that has already appeared in the document and it has its own rule at 4. Once a full citation to a case, statute, regulation, book, or journal article has. Jul 19, 2019 thus far, this guide has described how to cite cases in long form, i. Bluebook rules baron of the bluebook legal writing tips. The following information regarding the bluebook citation format is an adapted version of the style and formatting guidelines found in the bluebook, 20th ed. A lot of specific legal phrases are latin phrases or at least started out latin.
The central function of a legal citation is to allow the reader to efficiently locate the cited source. Parenthetical with name of court rendering opinion and jurisdiction, if not clear from reporter rule 10. Below is a table listing authority types covered in this guide, crossreferenced with the corresponding bluebook rule. Its limited aim is to serve as a tutorial on how to cite the most widely referenced types of u. Bluebook rule 10 covers how cases should be cited in legal documents. When referring to a source that is a collection of works, use supra to reference rule 15. Of the many skills legal writers must have and hone, knowing what to quote and how to integrate quotations into a piece of writing is one. The best way to get good at this is to do it and do it often. Weird bluebook rules bluebook citations libguides at.
Nov 25, 2019 as every law student knows, putting citations in bluebook format is a hassle. Short citing baron of the bluebook legal writing tips for. If the full citation is in a previous footnote, indicate the footnote by number. It is legal shorthand used to indicate that the details or citation of a case will come later on in the brief. Generally, the given differences may be described as the white pages vs. Short form for periodicals introduction to the bluebook.
What federal judges really think about the way lawyers write, 8 j. Attribution to identify the source of ideas expressed in the text, and. Oct, 2017 bruce ackerman, robert borks grand inquisition, 99 y ale l. Italics supra may be used to refer to certain types of previously cited materials as well as internal crossreferences. Supra latin for above is an academic and legal citation signal used when a writer desires to refer a reader to an earliercited authority. Carswell, 2010, also known as the mcgill guide, which is the. For generations, law students, lawyers, scholars, judges, and other legal professionals have relied on the bluebooks unique system of citation. Note, however, that some courts may require any legal papers. To assist readers in locating these sources, it is desirable to use a standardized citation format. A number of sources are available to help you become proficient and professional in the art of legal citation. Dangerous because what is usually gaining from one direction is a limit on words or pages a word count under u. The bluebook, is the definitive style guide for legal citation in the united states. Sep 14, 2011 since the book is blue, its only fair that super supra gets a pink logo.
This is not a comprehensive citation reference work. Short form citations basic legal citation cornell university. Law school bluebook basics one of the books that all 1l law students are required to purchase is the bluebook. A term employed in legal writing to indicate that the matter designated will appear beneath or in the pages following the reference.
Lets continue our series on how to present case law. Weird bluebook rules bluebook citations libguides at william s. Always check the blue pages in the back of the bluebook table 1 to. Bluebook citation for llm students harvard library research guides. When i add new footnotes, the numbering in supra citations gets messed up. Infra law and legal definition infra is a latin word meaning below, beneath or underneath. At asl, the primary source for rules regarding legal citation is the.
Welcome to the bluebook, the definitive style guide for legal citation in the united states. A lawyers guide to writing how to handle cases in legal writing. Short forms for cases bluebook guide guides at georgetown. Basic layout bluebook 101 library guides at university of. For works that would be difficult to cite using the supra form, or for which the short form would be confusing, a shortened form using hereinafter can be indicated in brackets at the end of the original citation. Legal citation, the bluebook, and the anxiety of authority. Citation practices and the bluebook cuny school of law. The bluebook requires citation to printed material provided it is available, unless there is an authenticated, official, or exact digital copy of the printed sources. Latin, italics, and punctuation are more than a little confusing so we will take a little time today to try to make those things a little bit clearer. See jonathan zittrain, the future of the internet and how to stop. If supra would be cumbersome or confusing, use hereinafter with the full cite to. First, you have books that impart general writing advice, using examples drawn from legal prose. Mission critical stuff, talking about the cases tags.
Preceding citation may only contain one authority but ignore authority in explanatory parentheticals. With that in mind, here is a list of some of the more obscure bluebook rules. Supra, on the other hand, can be used to refer to some previously cited authorities. A couple of dangerous words legal brief writers use for looking back are id. For generations, law students, lawyers, scholars, judges, and other legal professionals have relied on the bluebooks uniform system of citation in their writing. Basic layout bluebook 101 library guides at university.
When writing a legal argument, it is important to refer to primary sources. Always use a signal unless 1 the cited authority directly states the proposition in the text. Introductory signals appear at the beginning of citation sentences. I personally have developed a great love, respect, and. The main difference between them is that in text references are usually included in the text itself while footnotes are given at the bottom of the page. Generations of law students, lawyers, scholars, judges, and other legal professionals have relied on the bluebooks unique system of citation in their writing. It follows the canadian guide to uniform legal citation, 7th ed toronto. Use the title of the collection instead of an author in the supra reference. The bluebook also has citation rules for legal memoranda and other practiceoriented materials the blue pages, which students in lrwa2 use for their memo assignments. According to the bluebook, nonenglish words and phrases continue reading. The larger work after earlier citing to one of the shorter works.
Short citing baron of the bluebook legal writing tips. For example, an author wanting to refer to a source in his or her third footnote would cite. Include any references after the supra that vary from the former cite. Because you will often cite a case and other legal materials multiple times in a document, the bluebook has established a short form for use in subsequent citations. California style manual for many years, the california style manual has served as the official guide for styling citations to legal materials in documents filed with state courts in california. Supreme court rules or a page limit under many appellate court rules and gaining from the other is. If you are writing a brief or memo, look at the blue pages, rule b10 or apply the citation rules of the jurisdiction. Bluebook citation for llm students bluebook citation for.1235 311 965 965 973 795 19 67 1437 1379 888 504 1144 458 1217 1132 313 1196 522 127 1022 713 639 1133 922 238 1249 1251 596 847 182 1463 1352 1180 1297 774 734 780 192 1493 572